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The territory of Russia offers curious tourists many natural wonders and wonderful corners for an unforgettable vacation

Eastern and Western Sayans are the common name for two mountain systems in the south of Siberia. Distinguish the Western Sayan Mountains (length 650 km, altitude up to 3971 m - Mount Mongun-Taiga, which is the top of the ridge of the same name - the highest peak in Eastern Siberia, however, more often this ridge is not attributed to the Sayans, but is separated into a separate mountain system - the mountains of Tuva), consisting of the aligned and pointed ridges, on which there is no glaciation, separated by intermountain basins, and East Sayan (length of about 1000 km, height up to 3491 m - Mount Munku-Sardyk) with typical mid-mountain ridges bearing glaciers.

The rivers belong to the Yenisei basin. On the slopes, mountain taiga prevails, turning into mountain tundra. Western Sayan in the southwestern part borders with Altai. Its main ridge is the Dividing Sayan Range with the highest point - Mount Kyzyl-Taiga (3121 m). The ridges of the Western Sayan are characterized by steep slopes, rugged terrain, vast areas of stone placers. The height of the ridges in the west does not exceed 2500-3000 m, in the east it decreases to 2000 m. The East Sayan extends almost at a right angle to the West.

Its ridges form a system of "white mountains" (Manskoe, Kanskoe) and "proteins", which got their name because of the snow melting on the peaks that do not melt year round. In the central part, in the upper reaches of the Kazyr and Kizir rivers, several ridges form a "knot" with the highest point - the Grandiose peak (2982 m). In the southeast are the highest and most inaccessible ridges - Big Sayan, Tunkinsky Goltsy, Kitoyskiy Goltsy, Kropotkina. The highest point of the East Sayan - Munku-Sardyk (3491 m) is located in the ridge of the same name.

Between the Sayan ranges there are more than a dozen depressions of various sizes and depths, the most famous of which is the Abakan-Minusinsk depression, known for its archaeological sites. It is worth noting a large number of waterfalls. Dark coniferous taiga spruce-cedar-fir forests prevail almost everywhere in the Sayans, rising in the western and central parts to heights of 1500-1800 m and more; light deciduous cedar forests form the upper border of the forest at heights of 2000-2500 m. The animal world is as rich as the plant one. The largest city located in the Sayan Mountains is Krasnoyarsk.

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In the territories of modern Russia, people have lived since time immemorial

Lake (reservoir) Zyuratkul. Chelyabinsk region. Zyuratkul is located in the Satka district of the Chelyabinsk region in the territory of the national park of the same name. One of the highest mountains (724 m above sea level) in the southern Urals. The reservoir is surrounded by mountain ranges covered with dark coniferous forests. To the southwest is the Nurgush ridge - the highest ridge of the Chelyabinsk region. The main river that feeds the reservoir is the Big Kyl. Near the source of the Satka River and the dam is a small village Zyuratkul, connected by bus to the city of Satka.

Previously, Zyuratkul was a natural lake. Now - a reservoir formed by the dam built on the Great Satka. A giant geoglyph was found in the area of the lake. About forty stone tools made of quartzite were also found. The stone chipping technique makes it possible to date instruments with Neolithic and Eneolithic (VI-III millennium BC). Researchers are still inclined towards the Copper-Stone Age (IV-III millennium BC). It is noted that at that time in the southern Urals there were practically no forests (they appeared only 2,500 years ago), therefore it was easy to build a figure and then look at it from a neighboring ridge until it was covered with a layer of soil.

Tyatya Volcano, Kuril Islands - an active volcano on the Kunashir Island of the Great Kuril Ridge, on the territory of the Kuril Reserve. In geographical terms, Tyatya is a stratovolcano of the Somma-Vesuvius type ("volcano in a volcano"). The height reaches 1819 m (the highest point of Kunashir; in 1977 and subsequent years, the southeastern part of the summit crater collapsed and most of the material collapsed inside the northeastern crater.



As a result, the total height of the volcano decreased by about 30-50 meters and amounts to currently probably less than 1800 meters above sea level). The height of the somma is 1485 m, it has a regular truncated cone with a diameter of 15-18 km at the base and up to 2.5 km at the ring ridge. The foothills of the volcano are decorated with coniferous-deciduous forests with bamboo and thickets of stone birch and dwarf pine. In the forests at the foot you can often meet a bear. The path to the volcano is difficult, but most tourists get to the volcano from Yuzhno-Kurilsk.

Kungur cave, Perm Territory - one of the most popular attractions of Siberia and the Urals, a natural monument of all-Russian significance. The cave is located in the Perm Territory, on the right bank of the Sylva River on the outskirts of the city of Kungur in the village of Filippovka, 100 km from Perm. The unique geological monument is one of the largest karst caves in the European part of Russia, the seventh largest gypsum cave in the world. The length of the cave is about 5700 m, of which 1.5 km are equipped for tourists. The average air temperature in the center of the cave is +5 degrees Celsius, relative humidity in the center of the cave is 100%. Kungur cave contains 58 grottoes, 70 lakes, 146 tons "Organ pipes" (the highest - in the Ethereal Grotto, 22 m) - high mines reaching almost to the surface.

Not everyone knows that in Russia there is a semblance of the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa - an inclined tower in the center of Nevyansk, built in the first half of the 18th century on the orders of Akinfiy Demidov. The height of the tower is 57.5 meters, the base is a square with a side of 9.5 m. The deviation of the tower from the vertical is about 1.85 m, and the greatest slope is observed at the lower tier. The exact date of construction of the tower is unknown, various sources call dates in the range from 1721 to 1745. The tower is a massive quadrangle, on top of which 3 octagonal tiers are built. Inside the tower is divided into several levels - floors. The purpose of the first floor is not exactly established. Demidov's office was located on the second floor, and during the Soviet era there was a prison in it. There was a laboratory on the third floor: traces of silver and gold were found in soot taken from the chimneys of furnaces. According to one version, Demidov minted fake money here. According to another, here Demidov secretly smelted silver and gold from the state treasury, which was mined in his mines in Altai. Even higher is the so-called "auditory room". Its peculiarity is that standing in one corner of the room, you can clearly hear what they say in the opposite corner. The effect observed in the room is associated with a special form of the ceiling - it is vaulted and slightly flattened.

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